Do you know anything about reducers? Reducers in Process PipingA reducer is a kind of pipe fitting used in process piping that reduces the pipe size from a larger bore toa smaller bore (inner diameter).A reducer allows for a change in pipe size to meet hydraulic flow requirements of the system, or to adapt to existing piping of a different size. The length of the reduction is usually equal to the average of the larger and smaller pipe diameters.There are two main types of reducer:Concentric reducersEccentric reducersReducers are usually concentric but eccentric reducers are used when required to maintain the same top-or bottom-of-pipe level.Concentric ReducerIn Concentric Reducer the reduction of the pipe size is achieved by decreasing the diameter of the fitting at a constant rate over a specified length, maintaining symmetry around the fitting. Concentric Reducersare used to join pipe or tube sections of different diameters on the same axis. They provide an in-line conical transition between pressurized pipes of differing diameters. Thus, concentric reducers connect pipes of unequal size but have a common centerline. The same fitting can be used in reverse as an concentric expander.Eccentric ReducerIn Eccentric Reducer the reduction of the pipe size is achieved by decreasing the diameter of the fitting at a constant rate over a specified length, maintaining one side of the fitting horizontally. An eccentric pipe reducer fitting is manufactured with the smaller outlet off center to the larger end, which allows it to align with only one side of the inlet. The same fitting can be used in reverse as an eccentric expander.Uses of Concentric and Eccentric ReducersIn horizontal liquid piping, eccentric reducer must be installed with flat side up so that it can prevent trapping air in the piping system. As an exception, same is flat side down in piperack where same Bottom of Pipe (BOP) has to be maintained. Other exception is with control valves. A eccentric reducer with flat side down will give a more constant flow through the control valve rather than a concentric reducer or eccentric reducer with flat side up, which will give your more flow disruption and will cause problems with your control valve.In horizontal gas / vapor / steam piping, eccentric reducer must be installed with flat side down which allows condensed water or fluid to drain at low points.
Product information about elbows Steel pipe elbow (sometimes also refereed as bends) is a key part in a pressure piping system used to change the fluid flow direction. It is used to connect two pipes with same or different nominal diameters, and to make the pipe and thus the fluid direction turn to a certain direction of 45 degree or 90 degree. This change in fluid flow direction adds pressure losses to the system due to impact, friction and re-acceleration.Classification of Steel Pipe ElbowsSteel pipe elbows can be classified through following various parameters,Direction AngleLength and RadiusConnection with PipeMaterial of ConstructionTypes of Elbows based on Direction AngleAccording to fluid flow direction of the pipes, elbows can be divided into different degrees, such as 45 degree, 90 degree, 180 degree, which are most common elbows. Also there are 60 degree and 120 degree elbows for some special pipelines. This degree is just an representation of the angle by which the fluid flow is going to change after flowing through the said elbow. Types of Elbows based on Length and RadiusElbows are split into two groups which define the distance over which the flowing fluid change direction; the center line of one end to the opposite face. This is known as the “Center to Face” distance and is equivalent to the radius through which the elbow is bent.If the radius is the same as pipe diameter (Center-to-Face dimension of 1.0 X diameter ), it called Short Radius Elbow (SR elbow) used normally for low pressure and low speed pipelines or in tight areas where clearance is the main issue. If the radius is larger than pipe diameter (Center-to-Face dimension of 1.5 X diameter) then we call it a Long Radius Elbow (LR Elbow) used for high pressure and high flow rate pipelines.
Do you know what are the sides of the flange？ Raised Face Flange (RF)The Raised Face flange is the most common type used in process plant applications, and is easily to identify. It is referred to as a raised face because the gasket surfaces are raised above the bolting circle face. This face type allows the use of a wide combination of gasket designs, including flat ring sheet types and metallic composites such as spiral wound and double jacketed types. The purpose of a RF flange is to concentrate more pressure on a smaller gasket area and thereby increase the pressure containment capability of the joint. For 150# and 300# flanges, the raised face is of 1.6 mm (1/16 inch) and is included in the thickness specified. For higher rating, the flange thickness does not include the raised face thickness. Flat Face Flange (FF)The Flat Face flange has a gasket surface in the same plane as the bolting circle face. Applications using flat face flanges are frequently those in which the mating flange or flanged fitting is made from a casting. Flat face flanges are never to be bolted to a raised face flange. Ring Type Joint (RTJ) The Ring Type Joint flanges are typically used in high pressure (Class 600 and higher rating) and/or high temperature services above 800°F (427°C). They have grooves cut into their faces which seats ring gaskets. The flanges seal when tightened bolts compress the gasket between the flanges into the grooves, deforming the gasket to make intimate contact inside the grooves, creating a metal to metal seal. An RTJ flange may have a raised face with a ring groove machined into it.
Which flanges are we often used？ Slip On FlangeThe Slip On type flanges are attached by two fillet welds, inside as well as outside the flange. The calculated strength from a Slip On flange under internal pressure is of the order of two-thirds that of Welding Neck flanges, and their life under fatigue is about one-third that of the latter. Normally, these flanges are of forged construction and are provided with hub. Sometimes, these flanges are fabricated from plates and are not provided with the hub.The disadvantage of the flange is that a combination of flange and elbow or flange and tee is not possible because named fittings have not a straight end that complete slid in the Slip On flange. Socket Weld FlangeThe Socket weld flanges are attached by only one fillet weld, only on outside, and are not recommended for severe services. These are used for small-bore lines only. Their static strength is equal to Slip On flanges, but their fatigue strength is 50% greater than double-welded Slip On flanges. The thickness of connecting pipe should be specified for this type of flanges to ensure proper bore dimension.In socket weld flange, before welding, a space must be created between flange or fitting and pipe. ASME B31.1 Preparation for Welding (E) Socket Weld Assembly says:In assembly of the joint before welding, the pipe or tube shall be inserted into the socket to the maximum depth and then withdrawn approximately 1/16″ (1.6 mm) away from contact between the end of the pipe and the shoulder of the socket.The purpose for the bottoming clearance in a Socket Weld is usually to reduce the residual stress at the root of the weld that could occur during solidification of the weld metal. The image shows you the X measure for the expansion gap.The disadvantage of socket weld flange is right the gap, that must be made. By corrosive products, and mainly in stainless steel pipe systems, the crack between pipe and flange can give corrosion problems. In some processes this flange is also not allowed. Threaded Flange The Screwed or Threaded flanges are used on pipe lines where welding cannot be carried out. A threaded flange or fitting is not suitable for a pipe system with thin wall thickness, because cutting thread on a pipe is not possible.Thus,thicker wall thickness must be chosen.ASME B31.3 Piping Guide says:Where steel pipe is threaded and used for steam service above 250 psi or for water service above 100 psi with water temperatures above 220°F, the pipe shall be seamless and have a thickness at least equal to schedule 80 of ASME B36.10.Socket welding and threaded flanges are not recommended for service above 250°C and below -45 C. Weld Neck FlangeWelding Neck Flanges are easy to recognize as the long tapered hub, that goes gradually over to the wall thickness from a pipe or fitting. The long tapered hub provides an important reinforcement for use in several applications involving high pressure, sub-zero and / or elevated temperatures. The smooth transition from flange thickness to pipe or fitting wall thickness effected by the taper is extremely beneficial, under conditions of repeated bending, caused by line expansion or other variable forces.These flanges are bored to match the inside diameter of the mating pipe or fitting so there will be no restriction of product flow. This prevents turbulence at the joint and reduces erosion. They also provide excellent stress distribution through the tapered hub.The Weld neck flanges are attached by butt-welding to the pipes. These are used mainly for critical services where all the weld joints need radiographic inspection. While specifying these flanges, the thickness of the welding end also should be specified along with flange specification. Blind FlangeBlind Flanges are manufactured without a bore and used to blank off the ends of piping, Valves and pressure vessel openings.From the standpoint of internal pressure and bolt loading, blind flanges, particularly in the larger sizes, are the most highly stressed flange types.However, most of these stresses are bending types near the center, and since there is no standard inside diameter, these flanges are suitable for higher pressure temperature applications.
Which Certificates does JS FITTINGS have? Owner HEBEI JINSHENG PIPE FITTING MANUFACTURING CO., LTD Brand JS FITTINGS Certificate GB/T 19001-2016 / ISO 9001:2015 Valid scope seamless steel pipe fittings, welded steel pipe fittings, forged pipe flanges, forged steel pipe fittings Owner HEBEI JINSHENG PIPE FITTING MANUFACTURING CO., LTD Brand JS FITTINGS Certificate GOST-R Valid scope GOST 17375 pipe elbows LR, GOST 17376 pipe tees, GOST 17378 pipe reducers, GOST 17379 pipe caps. GOST 3262-75 pipe elbows SR, GOST 33259 pipe flanges, GOST 6533 pipe caps, etc Owner HEBEI JINSHENG PIPE FITTING MANUFACTURING CO., LTD Brand JS FITTINGS Certificate CE certificate, Certificate of compliance Valid Scope EN, BS, ASME, ANSI, DIN seamless pipe fittings, welded pipe fittings, forged flanges
The differences between ASME B16.5 and ASME B16.47 Series A, Series B 1111MicrosoftInternetExplorer402DocumentNotSpecified7.8 磅Normal0 ASME B16.5 standard covers Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings from NPS 1/2 through NPS 24 Metric/Inch in pressure class 150 to class 2500. It covers pressure-temperature ratings, materials, dimensions, tolerances, marking, testing, and methods of designating openings for pipe flanges and flanged fittings. Two very important flanges such as weld neck flange and blind flanges are very commonly used in piping systems. The term "B16.5" or "B16 5" is used interchangeability and refers to same standard. However, the standard ASME B16 5 (ANSI B16 5) only covers size up to 24 inches. For bigger sizes, ASME B16.47 standard covers pressure-temperature ratings, materials, dimensions, tolerances, marking, and testing for pipe flanges in sizes NPS 26 through NPS 60 and in ratings Classes 75, 150, 300, 400, 600, and 900. 1111MicrosoftInternetExplorer402DocumentNotSpecified7.8 磅Normal0 However, the standard ASME B16.47 is further divided into ASME B16.47 series A and ASME B16.47 series B flange for Blind flange and Weld-neck flange. Series B flange was also formerly known as API 605 flange. Term B16.47 or B 16 47 or ANSI B 16 47 are all used interchangeabily and refers to the same standard. 1111MicrosoftInternetExplorer402DocumentNotSpecified7.8 磅Normal0 ASME B16.47(Large Diameter Steel Flanges) is a standard for large diameter steel pipe flanges sized from NPS 26 through NPS 60. The latest version provides dimensions and ratings in both metric and inch units. The ASME B16.47 incorporate MSS SP-44: Steel Pipeline Flanges and API 605: Large Diameter Carbon Steel Flanges. Therefore, the MSS SP-44 flanges are designated as ASME B16.47 Series A flanges, while API 605 flanges are designated as ASME B16.47 Series B flanges within this standard. Materials covered in this standard are as that in ASME B16.5 except for nickel alloys which means they share the same pressure-temperature chart for the selection of flange materials.
Mechanical properties of metal materials and heat treatment process （1） "Four Elements" of Materials Science and Engineering Exploring the relationship between these four elements covers all research in the fields of materials science and engineering. It is the ability of engineering and technical personnel to be able to select appropriate materials according to the performance requirements and formulate corresponding processing techniques so that they will eventually have properties that meet the performance requirements. Mechanical properties of materials The mechanical properties of the material refer to the behavior under the action of an applied load (external force) or a combination of load and environmental factors (temperature, medium, and loading rate). 1111MicrosoftInternetExplorer402DocumentNotSpecified7.8 磅Normal0 Mechanical properties of metalCommonly used mechanical performance index of metalStrengthYield strength, tensile strength, fracture strengthPlasticityPercentage elongation,reduction of area, work-hardening exponentialSpringinesselasticity modulus,elastic limit,proportional limitHardnessBH, Vickers hardness,Rockwell hardnessToughnessstatic toughness, impact toughness, fracture toughnessFatiguefatigue strength, fatigue life, fatigue notch sensitivityStress corrosionStress corrosion critical stress field intensity factor,Stress corrosion cracking rate Unidirectional static tensile stress of MS--- stress-strain curve Stress-strain curve 1、 oa part， elastic deformation2、 abpart：elastic deformation +Plastic Deformation3、 bcd part：the material has obvious plastic deformation,under the condition that the force is basically unchanged, the sample continues to elongate4、 dB part：Elastic deformation + uniform plastic deformation5、Point B, the phenomenon of neck shrinkage occurs, the local section of the sample obviously reduces the bearing capacity of the sample, the tensile force reaches the maximum value, and the sample is about to fracture. Strength index 1. Strength refers to the ability of a material to resist plastic deformation and fracture。Yield StrengthΔs= Fs/SoFs: The tensile force that the sample bears when yielding (N)So: Original cross-sectional area of the sample (mm)Δs: The resistance of the material to obvious deformation is one of the main basis for the design and selection of tough materials.2. Tensile strengthThe maximum tensile stress that the specimen withstands before breaking off reflects the resistance of the material to the largest uniform deformation.Δb=Fb/SoΔb is often used as a seat for brittle materials and as a basis for design.
1111MicrosoftInternetExplorer402DocumentNotSpecified7.8 磅Normal0 Since many people are returning to work after the extended Spring Festival holiday or finishing their home quarantine, we've prepared some handy tips for you on protecting yourself from the novel coronavirus at your work place. Check it out!
1111MicrosoftInternetExplorer402DocumentNotSpecified7.8 磅Normal0 There are several different processes for galvanizing metal:Hot-Dip GalvanizingAs the name implies, this method involves dipping the base metal into a molten pool of zinc. First, the base metal must be cleaned either mechanically, chemically, or both to assure a quality bond can be made between the base metal and the zinc coating. Once cleaned, the base metal is then fluxed to rid it of any residual oxides that might remain after the cleaning process. The base metal is then dipped into a liquid bath of heated zinc and a metallurgical bond is formed.The advantages of this method are that it is economical; it can be performed quickly and to complex shapes. However, the final coating can be inconsistent relative to other galvanizing processes.Pre-galvanizingThis method is very similar to hot-dip galvanizing but is performed at the steel mill, usually on materials that already have a specific shape. Pre-galvanizing involves rolling metal sheet through a similar cleaning process to that of the hot-dip galvanizing process. The metal is then passed through a pool of hot, liquid zinc and then recoiled.An advantage of this method is that large coils of steel sheet can be rapidly galvanized with a more uniform coating compared to hot-dip galvanizing. A disadvantage is that once fabrication of the pre-galvanized metal begins, exposed, uncoated areas will become present. This means that when a long coil of sheet is cut into smaller sizes, the edges where the metal is cut are left exposed.Electro-galvanizingUnlike the previous processes, electrogalvanizing does not use a molten bath of zinc. Instead, this process utilizes an electrical current in an electrolyte solution to transfer zinc ions onto the base metal. This involves electrically reducing positively charged zinc ions to zinc metal which are then deposited on the positively charged material. Grain refiners can also be added which helps to ensure a smooth zinc coating on the steel. Similar to the pre-galvanizing process, electrogalvanizing is typically applied continuously to a roll of sheet metal.Some advantages of this process are a uniform coating and precise coating thickness. However, the coating is typically thinner than the coating of zinc achieved by the hot-dip galvanizing method which can result in reduced corrosion protection.
Steel pipe bends material and caculating Material of steel pipe bends 1111MicrosoftInternetExplorer402DocumentNotSpecified7.8 磅Normal0 Pipe fittings are necessary to join together pipes, or to change the direction of an existing pipe. Pipes and pipe fittings are made of a variety of materials, depending on the fluid or gas being transported. Most pipe fittings tend to be either threaded or able to slip over the pipes they connect. Whether you are using steel pipes of PVC pipes, a chemical solvent is required to create a seal between the pipe and the fittings.Measure the required length of the pipe to be installed, keeping in mind the extra length required where the pipe will be inserted into the fitting. Mark this length on the pipe. The pipe bending is used to change the direction of run of pipe.It advantage is can match long distance transition requirements, so it is commonly that bends dimension according to customer design.MaterialsThey are manufactured utilizing higher grade raw material, advanced machines and technologies.Abrasion resistant: Ceramic lined, Ceramic tile, Bi-metal clad pipe bending, Rare earth alloy wear-resistant pipe bendingCarbon steel:ASTM A234 WPB, ASTM A234 WPC, ASTMA42 WPL6, ASTMA42 WPL3, WP1. MSS-SP75, WPHY, WPHY 46, WPHY 52, WPHY 56, WPHY 60, WPHY 65, WPHY 70DIN 1629 St37, RST37.2 St52, STPG38 How to Calculate a Pipe Bend? Pipe fittings are necessary to join together pipes, or to change the direction of an existing pipe. Pipes and pipe fittings are made of a variety of materials, depending on the fluid or gas being transported. Most pipe fittings tend to be either threaded or able to slip over the pipes they connect. Whether you are using steel pipes of PVC pipes, a chemical solvent is required to create a seal between the pipe and the fittings.Measure the required length of the pipe to be installed, keeping in mind the extra length required where the pipe will be inserted into the fitting. Mark this length on the pipe.Beveled EndsThe ends of all butt-weld fittings are bevelled, exceeding wall thickness 4 mm for austenitic stainless steel, or 5 mm for ferritic stainless steel. The shape of the bevel depending upon the actual wall thickness. This bevelled ends are needed to be able to make a "Butt weld". Measure the required length of the pipe to be installed, keeping in mind the extra length required where the pipe will be inserted into the fitting. Mark this length on the pipe.Beveled EndsThe ends of all butt-weld fittings are bevelled, exceeding wall thickness 4 mm for austenitic stainless steel, or 5 mm for ferritic stainless steel. The shape of the bevel depending upon the actual wall thickness. This bevelled ends are needed to be able to make a "Butt weld".Welding Bevel acc.to ASME / ANSI B16.9 and ASME / ANSI B16.28ASME B16.25 covers the preparation of butt-welding ends of piping components to be joined into a piping system by welding. It includes requirements for welding bevels, for external and internal shaping of heavy-wall components, and for preparation of internal ends (including dimensions and dimensional tolerances).Our in-hourse R&D team developed bevel ends equipment are good using in thickness 2mm to 20mm pipe fittings, guarantee high efficiency and high quality. Send us your technical drawingsThese weld edge preparation requirements are also incorporated into the ASME standards (e.g., B16.9, B16.5, B16.34).ASME B16.25 (BUTT WELD ENDS)ASME B16.25 sets standards for the preparation of the ends of components that need to be welded together.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Socket Weld fittings ADVANTAGES 1. The pipe need not be beveled for weld preparation.2. Temporary tack welding is no needed for alignment, because in principle the fitting ensures proper alignment.3. The weld metal can not penetrate into the bore of the pipe.4. They can be used in place of threaded fittings, so the risk of leakage is much smaller.5. Radiography is not practical on the fillet weld; therefore correct fitting and welding is crucial. The fillet weld may be inspected by surface examination, magnetic particle (MP), or liquid penetrant (PT) examination methods.6. Construction costs are lower than with butt-welded joints due to the lack of exacting fit-up requirements and elimination of special machining for butt weld end preparation. DISADVANTAGES 1. The welder should ensure for a expansion gap of 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) between de pipe and the shoulder of the socket.ASME B31.1 para. 127.3 Preparation for Welding (E) Socket Weld Assembly says:In assembly of the joint before welding, the pipe or tube shall be inserted into the socket to the maximum depth and then withdrawn approximately 1/16" (1.6 mm) away from contact between the end of the pipe and the shoulder of the socket.2. The expansion gap and internal crevices left in socket welded systems promotes corrosion and make them less suitable for corrosive or radioactive applications where solids buildup at the joints may cause operating or maintenance problems. Generally require butt welds in all pipe sizes with complete weld penetration to the inside of the piping.3. Socket welding are unacceptable for UltraHigh Hydrostatic Pressure (UHP) in Food Industry application since they do not permit full penetration and leave overlaps and crevices that are very difficult to clean, creating virtual leaks. The purpose for the bottoming clearance in a Socket Weld is usually to reduce the residual stress at the root of the weld that could occur during solidification of the weld metal, and to allow for differential expansion of the mating elements.
What is a steel flange(4)? 1111MicrosoftInternetExplorer402DocumentNotSpecified7.8 磅Normal0 MEASUREMENTS Flanges within the same standard can either be flat (commonly cast iron, ductile iron) or raised face (commonly cast steel and stainless steel). These flange tables cover the critical flange dimensions to help identify what standard you have. 1111MicrosoftInternetExplorer402DocumentNotSpecified7.8 磅Normal0 Critical flange dimensions help to identify the standard. 1111MicrosoftInternetExplorer402DocumentNotSpecified7.8 磅Normal0 Pipe Size – Pipe flanges also have a corresponding pipe size, generally according to accepted standards. Outside Diameter of Flange (OD) – this is measured from outer edge to opposing outer edge. Pitch Circle Diameter (PCD) – this is a diameter that measures from the center of bolt hole to opposing bolt hole. Flange Thickness – this measures only the thickness of the attaching outer rim, and does not include the part of the flange that holds the pipe.
What is a steel flange(2)? Material Each flange material is to be considered for its application prior to ordering, this is due to the structural integrity of the application that the flange will be used on.Carbon steel is the main material that JS FITTINGS make stock with. 1111MicrosoftInternetExplorer402DocumentNotSpecified7.8 磅Normal0 Currently, the most common materials for flanges are:Carbon steel• ASTM A105/A266 Gr.2 (high temperature carbon steel flanges) • ASTM A350 LF1 to LF3 (low temperature carbon steel flanges) • ASTM A694 Gr. F42/F52/F56/F60/F65 (high yield carbon steel flanges to match API 5L linepipes)Alloy Steel• ASTM A182 Gr. F1/F2/F5/F9/F11 Cl.2/F12 Cl.2/F22 Cl.3/F91 (alloy steel flanges)Stainless / Duplex Steel• ASTM A182 F304/304L, 316/316L, 321, 347, 348 (stainless steel flanges), 904/904L • ASTM A182 F51 (duplex flanges)/F53-F55 (superduplex flanges) Nickel Alloys / Superalloys • ASTM B166 UNS NO6600 (Inconel 600) • ASTM B564 UNS N06625 (Inconel 625) • ASTM B425 UNS-NO8800 (Incoloy 800) • ASTM B564 UNS N08825 (Incoloy 825) • ASTM B160 UNS N0200 (Nickel 200) • ASTM B564 UNS N04400 (Monel 400) • ASTM B564 UNS N10276 (Hastelloy C-276)Titanium • ASTM B381 Gr.2 (Titanium)
What is a steel flange? (1) A flange is a forged or casting steel ring designed to connect mechanically sections of pipe or join pipe to a pressure vessel, pump, valve or any other piece of equipment. 1111MicrosoftInternetExplorer402DocumentNotSpecified7.8 磅Normal0 1111MicrosoftInternetExplorer402DocumentNotSpecified7.8 磅Normal0 THE BASICS OF STEEL FLANGES 1111MicrosoftInternetExplorer402DocumentNotSpecified7.8 磅Normal0 Steel flanges provide an easy access for cleaning, inspection or modification. They usually come in round shapes but they can also come in square and rectangular forms. The flanges are joined to each other by bolting and joined to the piping system by welding or threading and are designed to the specific pressure ratings; 150lb, 300lb, 400lb, 600lb, 900lb, 1500lb and 2500lb.A flange can be a plate for covering or closing the end of a pipe. This is called a blind flange. Thus, flanges are considered to be internal components which are used to support mechanical parts.